Defending the Muhadditheen from forging self created principles
1. Why this article
2. Ten Summarized points to briefly (shortly) refute the allegation (those who intend to read more in depth can scroll down to the following sub-topics , otherwise this sub-topic is enough i believe to convey my message)
3. A collection of some Verses which are used in developing the sciences of hadeeth
4. A collection of some Ahadeeth which are used in developing or extracting the sciences of hadeeth
4.2) The Proof of adhering to the chain of narrators
5. Concluding statement
6. Relevant reads
1. Why this article
Some of the people who are victims to their own intellect being superior to the experts of their field have fallen into a disease called as hypocricy as well as irrationality .
Hypocricy because they wouldn’t let a salesman or a tailor interfere and judge on medical issues of surgery but they would very easily defend the interference and analysis of a non scholar in scholarly issues.
as for irrationality then it is because some of the followers of respected Muslim men such as mawlana mawdudi rahimahullah and his ilk happen to be affected by their blunders and therefore have caused the opening of the door of inkaar of hadeeth. I for one belong to the regions affected with this deviated idealogy and have been in the circles of many of these groups and NGO’s who take mawdudi as their hero yet due to lack of proper knowledge have succumbed to his mistakes and taken it as a Hujjah.
2. Ten Summarized points to briefly (shortly) refute the allegation (those who intend to read more in depth can scroll down to the following sub-topics , otherwise these ten points in this sub-topic is enough i believe to convey my message and for any reader to take heed)
this short post is to refute their notion that the science of hadeeth is MERELY something the later generation like Bukhaari and ilk have devised or invented using their own ijtihaad ALONE. I beg to differ and following are very few examples why so :
1. First of all bukhaari was preceded by hundreds if not thousands of `ulema who wrote ahadeeth as well as transmitted it orally using the principles of usool al hadeeth and asmaa ur-rijaal all the while. E.g shu`bah ibn al-Hajjaj and Ibn Mubarak and even people before him such as Ibn `Abbas radhiallahu `anhu and ibn sireen. See this article to see how early the sahaaba started compiling and writing ahadeeth and the prophet made them proof read as well : http://the-finalrevelation.blogspot.com/2013/01/hadeeth-books-and-compilations-by.html
2. Also the principles or parameters of verification or usool of hadeeth is something which the muhadditheen surely did reform and extend but have based it from the original Qur`an and Sunnah and that is where it stems from. There is a difference in saying they devised the entire science VS they merely extended or reformed the istilaahat (terminologies ) and application
From the principle of having two witnesses to the sunnah of accepting the testimony of someone known to be of good virtue, all of these were taken from the qur`an , hadeeth and 1st three generations but i will give some e.g’s from the sahaaba only
(قول عمر رضى الله عنه: ” المسلون عدول بعضهم على بعضهم “.
`Umar (radhiallahu `anhu) said (to Abu Musa al-`Ashari regarding judgement issues that) muslims are worthy (or just enough to judge or testify for or against) each other
3. The hadeeth in Bukhaari wherein `umar r.a asked abu sa`eed khudri to prove that what he narrated was from the prophet and eventually other sahaaba testified. This is a small glimpse showing that the Muhadditheen took verification protocols from the sahaaba
4. In saheeh bukhaari we read Abu Bakr radhiallahu anhu told Zaid ibn Thabit why he chose him for compiling the qur`an : ….”you are a wise young man and we DO NOT HAVE ANY SUSPICION ABOUT YOU (YOUR CHARACTER OR SHORTFALLS) .
This also proves that it is the sunnah of the best of mankind to verify the characteristic traits before taking something from him which the muhadditheen used as one of their usools.
5. We also know of many narrations including the one in Muqaddamah Muslim ibn Hajjaj that Ibn `Abbas (radhiallahu `anhu) and other sahaaba also verified the men and their idealogy or creed before accepting a statement. Again the muhadditheen took this from them
6. So much so that the principle used by the muhadditheen of not accepting a ghareeb riwayat or not accepting the riwaya of a majhool person or a mu`dal riwayat or even a mu`allaq also comes from the verdict of the sahaaba which is marfoo` in hukm and recorded in muqaddamah saheeh Muslim e.g
Abdullah ibn mas`ood (radhiallahu `anhu) said:
‘Indeed Satan will appear in the form of a man and he will come to the people, narrating to them false Ḥadīth, and they will then depart. Then a man among them will say: ‘I heard a man whose face I recognize but I do not know his name narrating [such and such]…’
7. So much so that the Muhadditheen themselves agree and confess that their principles are taken from the prophetic ahadeeth such as Imam as-shaf`ee in his risalah (397/ number 1094) himself said after mentioning a hadeeth….
“This is the most emphatic hadith ever transmitted from the Messenger of Allah on this matter. We have relied on it as well as on other hadiths in not accepting any hadith except from a trustworthy transmitter and we know the truthfulness of those who transmitted it from first to last…..”
So anyone who accuses the Muhadditheen of inventing these principles is a liar
8. If some ignorant individual again wants to strike a doubt asking okay they said to take from trustworthy person but they never said what determines the trustworthiness of a person then we reply to their lies using the following out of the many other narration :
From Sulaymaan ibn Mus-hir: from Kharashah ibn al-Hurr, who said:
“A man bore witness in the presence of `Umar ibn al-Khattaab -radiyallaahu `anhu, so `Umar said to him: “I do not know you, and it does not harm you that I do not know you, but bring someone who does know you.”
So a man said: ‘I know him, O Chief of the Believers.’
He said: “What do you know of him.”
He said: ‘Uprightness.’
He said: “Is he your closest neighbour; so that you know about his night and his day, and his comings and goings?”
He said: ‘No.’
He said: “So have you had (monetary) dealings with him involving dirhams and deenars, which will indicate his piety?”
He said: ‘No.’
He said: “Then has he been your companion upon a journey which could indicate to you his good character?”
He said: ‘No.’
He said: “Then you do not know him.”
Then he said to the man: “Bring me someone who knows you.”
[Ref: Reported by al-Bayhaqee and others, and it was declared to be ‘saheeh’ (authentic) by Ibnus-Sakan, and our Shaikh [i.e.Muhammad Naasiruddeen al-Albaanee] agreed; and refer to’al-Irwaa’ (no.2637).]
9. Another example is that Yahya ibn Ma`een rahimahullah went to the students of Hammad ibn Salamah (d 169 Ah) , including haroon and Musa ibn Isma`eel and wanted to read back what he took from the other routes so as to verify if what he received is correct. One may ask what is the basis of this “process of verification” usually classified in mustalahal hadeeth under the baab of Turuk at-tahammaul (means of transporting the hadeeth) as ” `Ardh ” Though the term may be new but where is the `Asl of this practise? it goes back to the prophet sallalahu `alayhi wa sallam and Zaid ibn thabit but here is another example of another sahaabi approving this method and validating it :
عن زيد بن ثابت قال: كنت أكتب الوحي لرسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم، وكان «إذا نزل عليه أخذته برحاء شديدة، وعرق عرقا شديدا مثل الجمان، ثم سري عنه» ، فكنت أدخل عليه بقطعة الكتف أو كسرة، فأكتب وهو يملي علي، فما أفرغ حتى تكاد رجلي تنكسر من ثقل القرآن، وحتى أقول: لا أمشي على رجلي أبدا، فإذا فرغت قال: «اقرأه» ، فأقرؤه، فإن كان فيه سقط أقامه، ثم أخرج به إلى الناس
Zaid bin Thabit, one of the chief scribes relates: “I used to write down the revelation for the Holy Prophet, may the peace and blessings of Allah be upon him. When the revelation came to him he felt intense heat and drops of perspiration used to roll down his body like pearls. When this state was over I used to fetch a shoulder bone or a piece of something else. He used to go on dictating and I used to write it down. When I finished writing the sheer weight of transcription gave me the feeling that my leg would break and I would not be able to walk anymore. Anyhow when I finished writing, he would say, ‘Read!’ and I would read it back to him. If there was an omission or error he used to correct it and then let it be brought before the people
[Ref: Mu`jam Al-Tabarani Al-Awst, Hadith 1913. Dar al-Haramain, Cairo, 1415 AH. Authenticated by Al-Haithmi in Majma’ Al-Zawaid 8/257, Hadith 13938]
10) Another example though all of these are very “logical and rational” yet these victims of “ironic” taqleed  do not understand. Let me give another example. The salaf truly wrote books and considered it as one of the requirements that a Muhaddith has to travel to gain the different asaaneed without which his reliability is put to question. One may ask where did they get this motivation from? One of the examples are :
Jaabir ibn `Abdullaah radhiallahu `anhu (a sahaabi to those who don’t know) said, “I purchased a camel and rode it hard for a month until I reached al-Shaam. `Abdullaah ibn Unais was there, and I sent word to him, saying, “Jaabir is at the door.” The messenger returned and asked, “Jaabir ibn `Abdullaah?” I replied: “Yes”. So `Abdullaah came out and embraced me. I said, “A Hadeeth reached me (on your authority) which I had not heard before and I feared that one of us might die.” He (`Abdullaah bin Unais) went on, “I heard the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم say, The people will be gathered uncircumsised and buhman. ……(cont)
[Adab al-Mufrad (970) of al-Bukhaaree and graded as “Hasan” (good) by Shaikh al-Albaanee. He also authenticated it in “Takhreej Kitaab al-Sunnah” (514)]
 Ironic because they say they don’t blind follow a scholar such as Mawdudi or Ghamidi, yet whatever they parrot seems to be exactly their writings even when their writings are opposed by EVERYONE before.
Yahya ibn Ma`een rahimahullah remarked about such a man : that anyone who limits his studies to his city alone and refuses to journey, cannot reach scholarly maturity
[Ref: Al-Khatib, ar-Rihla, Damascus, 1395 (1975), p. 89]
Many examples could be given. Al-Khateeb al-Baghdadi has written an entire work on the subject of traveling in search of hadeeth. His work is entitled Al-Rihla fi Talab al-Hadeeth (“Travels in Search of Hadeeth”). What makes this work even more interesting is that it is not simply concerned with scholars traveling to learn hadeeth. This was done by almost every scholar in the history of Islam. Indeed, if a scholar did not travel that was usually pointed out as something strange, as the norm was to travel. However, this book, as pointed out by the editor of the work Noor al-Deen Its, is about travels in search of just one hadeeth and not hadeeth in general
3. A collection of some Verses which are used in developing or extracting the sciences of hadeeth
(the two sisters said) “ ‘O my father! Hire him (Moses)! Verily, the best of men for you to hire is the strong, the trustworthy’”
This shows that the qualities of one being strong (in emaan or in tolerance in patience and etc) and one who is trustworthy (free from treachery, dishonesty, slackness ) is to be given preference
Allah I said, “Allah will not leave the believers in the state in which you are now, until He distinguishes the wicked from the good.” (3:179)
Imam Ibn Qayyim al-Jawziyyah said in, Bada’i`u at-Tafsir, 1/536-537, “This verse is one of the treasures of the Qur’an which points to the wisdom of Allah , which necessitates that he distinguishes the wicked from the good, and that differentiation only happens through His messengers  . Allah chooses among them whom He Wills, and sends them to His slaves; through their messages, the good is differentiated [from the wicked], the helper from the enemy, and who is fit to be a companion [of that messenger] and who is only fit to be fuel [for hellfire is differentiated].
 The scholars are the inheritors of the Messenger’s knowledge, thus after the Messengers are gone, this responsibility befalls upon the scholars
Allah I said, “O you who believe! If a rebellious evil person comes to you with a news, verify it, lest you harm people in ignorance, and afterwards you become regretful to what you have done.” (49:6)
This verse is a fundamental when it pertains to taking into account the `adala (uprightness; someone who possesses `adala [an `adl] is not a sinner or liar) and dhabt (trustworthiness; someone who possesses dhabt [a dhabit] does not have a weak memory or is quick to forget) of someone narrating, just as it is proof that it is obligatory to double check and ascertain as to the authenticity of the news brought by a sinner.
[Ref: Dhawabit al-Jarh wa at-Ta`dil, pg. 27]
Ibn Taimiyyah said, “This also proves clearly that believing a single upright person is not forbidden always, and this proves that we can accept the testimony of one upright person…”
[Ref: Majmu` al-Fatawa, 3/463]
He also noted another principle : “This is a proof which shows that the report of one sinner should be ascertained, as for two or more sinners, then its indication needs to be established by it being introduced separately in the verse… ascertaining was only ordered for the report of one sinner, and not for two. The report of two sinners necessitates more belief than the report of only one.
[Ref: Majmu` al-Fatawa, 4/7]
Allah I said, “And thus do We explain the Ayat (proofs, evidences, verses, lessons, signs, revelations, etc.) in detail, that the way of the Mujrimoon(criminals, polytheists, sinners), may become manifest.” (6:55)
This verse was explained by the Muffassiroon of all times, including the late Shaykh as-Sa`di rahimahullah in his Tafseer that this verse is a proof that we need to make distinct falsehood and truth and likewise distinct the practises of the evil doers by criticising, pointing them and their practises out and so on so when we know what constitutes falsehood we can abstain from it. This is what the Muhaddithoon worked using .
[Ref: Tafseer as-sa`di page 50 and 258 for original explanation]
Allah I said, “And take for witness two just persons from among you (Muslims). And establish the witness for Allah.” (65:2); and, “As adjudged by two just men among you.” (5:95)
These verses are a proof that witness and testimonies of the Muhaddithoon in regards to more serious issues than what the verses were revealed for are all the more important.
[Ref: Al-Khulasah fi `Ilm al-Jarh wa at-Ta`dil, by `Ali bin Nayif al-Shuhud, pg. 18, with slight changes.]
4.1) The Proof of sincerity
‘The Deen (religion) is naseehah (advice/sincerity)’. We said ‘To whom?’ He said ‘To Allah and His Book, and His Messenger, and to the leaders of the Muslims and their common folk.’ [Related by Muslim no 55]
This hadeeth makes it incumbent that every advice and everything related to the deen revolves around sincerity. Whether it be towards the religion itself or in Mu`amalat i.e with people and rulers
4.2) The Proof of adhering to the chain of narrators
And it is known that Isnaad (chain of transmission) is one of the specialties of this Ummah. This is by which we come to know of the proven Prophetic traditions as it is narrated from Abdullah bin Abbaas (radiallah anhu) that he said: The Messenger of Allaah (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) said: “You hear (from me), and others will hear from you; and people will hear from them who heard from you.”
[Ref: Ahmed (2945), Abu Dawood (3659) and Ibn Hibbaan (62) in his Saheeh with a Saheeh chain]
4.3) The proof of taking only from the righteouss
«يَا ابْنَ عُمَرَ دِينُكَ دِينُكَ , إِنَّمَا هُوَ لَحْمُكَ وَدَمُكَ , فَانْظُرْ عَمَّنْ تَأْخُذُ , خُذْ عَنِ الَّذِينَ اسْتَقَامُوا , وَلَا تَأْخُذْ عَنِ الَّذِينَ »
The prophet (sallalahu `alayhi wa sallam) is reported to have said to Ibn `Umar (r.a) : Oh Ibn umar, your deen is your faith, indeed it is your flesh and blood (i.e life) so, be careful for whom you are receiving it from, receive it from the( pious and )steadfast and do not take it from those leaning astray
[Ref: al-Kifayah , khateeb al Baghdadi page 121 – Dha`eef]
This along with other ahadeeth are used by the muhaddithoon to read, study and transmit the biographies of the narrators so to analyze and be careful of whom they take their religion from.
4.6) The Proof of not lying when transmitting narrations
The prophet (sallalahu `alayhi wa sallam) said :
The one who is consulted (for advice) is entrusted
[Ref: Al-Adab Al-Mufrad 256; The context of this statement of the prophet can be read from this hadeeth : http://sunnah.com/adab/13/1]
One may wonder how did this hadeeth urge or motivate the muhadditheen. Very simple, another hadeeth explains this :
The signs of the hypocrite are three: when he speaks, he lies; when he makes a promise, he breaks it; and when he is entrusted with something, he betrays that trust.”
[Ref: Narrated by al-Bukhari, 33; Muslim, 59]
And ” he is not one of us who betrays the trust”
This hadeeth combined with hadeeth no. 3.2 above makes it incumbent upon the muhadditheen to not only implement these tests of piety upon themselves but also instill this very principle in the usool of hadeeth and asmaa ur-rijaal . This is why they rejected the hadeeth of one who is a liar.
4.7) The Proof of refuting false narrations and beliefs using a variety of means
Abu Huraira (r.a) reported that The Prophet sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam said:
يحمل هذا العلم من كل خلف عدوله ينفون عنه تحريف الغالين وانتحال المبطلين وتأويل الجاهلين
“This knowledge will be carried by the trustworthy ones of every generation. They will expel from it the alteration made by those going beyond bounds; the false claims of the liars and the false interpretations of the ignorant ones.
[Ref: Saheeh: Related by al-Bayhaqee in Sunanul-Kubraa (10/209), Ibn Abee Haatim in al-Jarh wat-Ta’deel (2/17) and Ibn ‘Abdil-Barr in at-Tamheed (1/57-58), from the Hadeeth of Ibraaheem ibn ‘Abdir-Rahmaan al-‘Udharee radiallaahu ‘anhu. It was authenticated by Imaam Ahmad (see Tareekh Dimishq 7/39) – as occurs in Sharafu Ashaabul-Hadeeth (p.29) of al-Khateeb al-Baghdaadee. Authenticated in Silsilah al-Saheeha 227 ]
Can there be a bigger good tiding , a bigger motivation from the Messenger of Allah himself to ensure that the scholars (or people of `ilm) strive to carry this religion and it’s teachings and strive to expel the interpolation made by the deviants and to refute the false claims of deviants (e.g Munkirul hadeeth) and their false interpretations These narrations play a major role in not only motivating but extracting and formulating the principles which the muhaddithoon work with .
4.8) The Proof of refuting and criticising the narrators
“As for Abu Jahm, he does not put down his staff from his shoulder (he is abusive), and as for Mu`awiyah, he is a poor man having no property; marry Usamah bin Zaid…
4.9) The proof of abandoning the claim of one who is untrustworthy and speaks out of personal grudge
لاَ تَجُوزُ شَهَادَةُ خَائِنٍ وَلاَ خَائِنَةٍ وَلاَ زَانٍ وَلاَ زَانِيَةٍ وَلاَ ذِي غِمْرٍ عَلَى أَخِيهِ ” .
Narrated ‘Abdullah bin ‘Umar (r.a): Allah’s Messenger (ﷺ) said: “It is not permissible to accept the testimony of a man or a woman who does not fulfil their trusts (or is deceitful as it comes in another narration), or of one who harbors a grudge against his brother, ……”
[Ref: Reported by Ahmad and Abu Dawud. This narration has also come from `Umar (r.a) in Malik’s Muwatta].
This is a proof used when the Muhadditheen reject one who does not fulfil his trust such as lying or a deceitful man or one who holds a grudge against another scholar, in such a case his testimony is not accepted. For e.g :
Imam al-Dhahabi (r.h) speaking about the Jarh done by scholars out of envy or other similar reasons said:
“…..We don’t claim that the scholars (of Jarh wa T`adeel) are infallible from mistakes [minal ghalat an-naadhira] and we also do not negate (the fact) that there does/can exist enemity or severity (such as extremism/oppression/etc , Arabic : shahnaa] and this is known through the speeches of those who are/were contemporaries to each other that some of them that criticise the other and such (criticism) is rejected or has no quality (muhdarul laa `ibratah bih, because jarh or radd based on such grounds such as enmity, jealousy, etc is rejected)……”
4.10) The Proof of defending the Pious scholars even if by disparaging those who deserve it.
Narrated Sa`id ibn Al-Musaiyyab: ‘Umar came to the mosque while Hassaan was reciting a poem. (‘Umar disapproved of that). On that Hassaan said, “I used to recite poetry in this very mosque in the presence of one (i.e. the Prophet ) who was better than you.” Then he turned towards Abu Hurairah and said (to him), “I ask you by Allah, did you hear Allah’s Messenger saying (to me), ‘Retort on my behalf. O Allah! Support him (i.e., Hassaan) with the Ruh Al-Qudus [i.e. Jibril (Gabrael)]?” Abu Hurairah said, “Yes.” [Ref: Bukhaari Vol 4; Hadeeth Number 3212]
Imaam Abu Haatim (rahimahullaah) said: There is evidence in this narration similar to a command to disparage the du’afaa. That is because the Prophet ((sallalahu `alayhi wa sallam) said to Hassaan (radiyallaahu-anhu), ‘’Retort on my behalf.’’ He (sallal-laahu-alayhi-wasallam) commanded [Hassaan (radiyallaahu-anhu)] to defend him against the lies that the idol worshippers used to utter about him.
And if it is the case that the Messenger of Allaah (sallalahu `alayhi wa sallam) commanded (Hassaan) to defend him against the lies of the idol worshipers, even though their lies did not harm the Muslims, and neither did they declare what is Haraam to be Halaal nor what is Halaal to be Haraam due to (those lies); then it is more proper that he ((sallalahu `alayhi wa sallam) is defended against those Muslims who lie about him (sallal-laahu-alahu-wasallam) through their (weak, fabricated) narrations and thus declare what is Haraam to be Halaal and what is Halaal to be Haraam.
[Ref: Muqaddimah Kitaab Al-Majrooheem Minal Muhadditheen of Imaam Ibn Hibbaan (rahimahullaah). Page: 67-68]
4.11) The proof of leaving the doubtful narrations
The messenger of Allah (sallalahu `alayhi wa sallam) said :Leave that which makes you doubt for that which does not make you doubt.”
[Ref: Sunan an-Nasa’ee, Tirmidhi and elsewhere]
This verdict of the prophet `alayhi salatu was-salaam is echoed in a variety of narrations using different expressions such as
فضل العلم خير من فضل العبادة وخير دينكم الورع
“The excellence of knowledge is better than the excellence of worship. The best of your religion is wara’. 
 al-Jurjani, al-Ta`rifat, p. 325, said that it was ‘The leaving of anything doubtful for fear of falling into the prohibited. It is also said that it is to adhere firmly to all beautiful deeds
And another wording replaces khayra with Ahabbu
فَضْلُ الْعِلْمِ أَحَبُّ إِلَيَّ مِنْ فَضْلِ الْعِبَادَةِ وَخَيْرُ دِينِكُمُ الْوَرَعُ
The virtue of knowledge is more beloved to me than the virtue of worship, and the best of your religion is mindfulness (al-wara’).”
[Ref: 818 الآداب للبيهقي الآداب للبيهقي باب من اتقى الشبهات مخافة الوقوع]
And he `Alayhi salatu was-salaam is reported to have said :
I merely gave a few examples from the sahaaba themselves , leaving out the multitude of other examples from qur`an , sunnah as well as the sahaaba themselves. This is only to show these ignorant brothers may allah guide them that the very Qur`an you hold in your hand today was preserved the EXACT SAME WAY THE AHADEETH WERE PRESERVED. Whatever principles the salaf applied upon the Qur`an also applied it on the Hadeeth . Then why do you affirm the former yet doubt/reject the latter? Have you not `Aql?
6) Relevant read